ANAC in the context of international relations
Among the main functions that the law attributes to ANAC, there is the international cooperation in the field of public integrity and corruption prevention.
The law No. 190/2012 - that established the Italian National Anti-Corruption Authority in execution of the art. 6 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) - in the art. 1 provides that the Authority “cooperates with foreign equivalent authorities, and with the competent regional and international organizations”.
In the 10-year period following the law n. 190/2012, the functions of ANAC have been enriched becoming more pervasive, also with regard to international cooperation, increasing the network of international relationships that have contributed to the improvement of Italy's image and reputation and to the achievement of important acknowledgments both in multilateral relations and bilateral relations.
ANAC is part of the most relevant international networks and initiatives on public integrity and corruption prevention. It is important to remark how is useful for the country that an institution such as ANAC actively participates in international initiatives on the subject of prevention of corruption, integrity and procurement, promoting its own good practices and trying to learn from those of other countries, fostering regulatory convergence and the promotion of the principles of the international rule of law, providing technical assistance and participating in capacity building programs to make tangible the Italy's spirit of collaboration in the international community.
Multilateral relations and networks
From the point of view of multilateral relations, ANAC participates in the work of the most important international organizations (European Union, United Nations, OECD, OSCE, Council of Europe, G20, G7, OGP, etc.), also through participation in the numerous “peer review cycles” and in the many international "tables" of intergovernmental cooperation.
In the European context, in particular, the Authority cooperates intensely with the institutions of the Union, within the scope of its competences, both in the sector of the prevention of corruption and in that of public procurement. The Authority participates in the working groups of the European Commission and the European Council, ensuring a flow of information between the two sectors, as well as enhancing the peculiarities of the mission of the Authority and the Italian model, which combines the prevention of corruption and the supervision of public procurement.
In addition to adhering to the work of the international organizations, ANAC is part of the main networks in the fields of its competence.
The institutional model of networks dealing with integrity/ transparency/ anti-corruption is very common at international and European level. These networks differ from each other on the base of the functions (prevention, repression, awareness campaigns, etc.) and/ or on the base of the sectors of intervention (anti-corruption, conflicts of interest, lobbying, asset declarations, whistleblowing, etc.) of the related authorities.
ANAC was the first president and among the founders in 2018 - together with the French Anti-Corruption Agency (AFA) and the Serbian Agency for the Prevention of Corruption (APC), and with the support of the Council of Europe Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) - of the Network of Corruption Prevention Authorities (NCPA). Over the years, the network has grown both in terms of members and affiliates and in terms of cooperation and joint activities.
In accordance with the NCPA objectives and with the guiding principles of the United Nations Conventions against Corruption, the members of the network have undertaken initiatives to improve the systematic collection, management and exchange of information, experiences and best practices, and to respond to the new challenges for the prevention of corruption.
ANAC is one of the founders of the "Network of European Integrity and Whistleblowing Authorities" (NEIWA), animating all its initiatives and contributing to the circulation of knowledge and experience in the particularly delicate and important phase of transposition and implementation by the States of the European Directive concerning whistleblowing. In 2023, the ANAC was called to preside over the network.
Of particular importance is the European Network for Public Ethics (ENPE), of which ANAC was a founding member in 2022. Compared to other networks operating at European level, this is, in fact, the only network that brings together exclusively the authorities involved in prevention of corruption and to which only institutions belonging to an EU Member State can join. The objective of the Network is to promote a culture of public integrity and the harmonization of the rules on the prevention of corruption, adopted by the various EU Member States, identifying good practices in the matter. Furthermore, the Network aims to become the privileged interlocutor of the EU commission which is working on a package of anti-corruption regulations.
Since May 2023, ANAC has become a member of the Network for Integrity, and the President Giuseppe Busìa has been elected vice president, and will automatically become president the following year.
ANAC also adheres to EPAC, an independent, informal, and non-politicised network of police organizations and anti-corruption authorities of the member states of the European Union and of the Council of Europe active in the coordination of policies for the prevention and fight against corruption; ANAC participates in the initiatives of the “International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities” (IAACA), and it is a member of the executive committee.
From the point of view of bilateral relations, numerous countries, through diplomatic channels or direct contacts, send the Authority requests for information material, specific regulatory documents, evidence of anti-corruption experiences and practices and/or invitations for institutional visits, proposals of memoranda of understanding and agreements, requests for meetings to exchange information and for training/technical assistance.
ANAC participates in the most important capacity building programs of Italy in the field of corruption prevention, transparency and public integrity. These are activities which, in addition to providing training to the officials of the requesting countries which recognize to Italy's experience and knowledge international relevance, together with the parallel technical assistance activities, fall within the more general framework of the so-called "legal diplomacy". Through these initiatives, ANAC, in coordination with the Italian Foreign Office, with the Ministry of Justice and with other Italian institutions, and in the spirit of the principles of the UNCAC, participates in the promotion of the international rule of law and in the development of multilateral and bilateral relations based on collaboration and mutual assistance between countries. These activities are mostly promoted and financed by the European Commission through for example the TAIEX programs and by other international organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Italian-Latin American International Organization (IILA).